The CoolView TC1000 is a high performance Electron Multiplied Megapixel black end white camera with extended cooling giving near single photon sensitivity. The Coolview TC1000 is ideal for imaging extremely weak Photonic emissions in real time such as single molecule fluorescence imaging or confocal microscopy. The EM gain can be boosted in excess of 2,000:1, approaching that of single stage image intensifiers. Gain calibration against temperature allows accurate gain control in an extremely reproducible manner. The quantum efficiency of the sensor peaks at 65% in the visible region but allows imaging from UV up to NIR spectral range. The frame transfer architecture combined with low noise electronics allows fast image acquisition > 100 fps using either binning and or Region Of Interest (ROI) on the CCD. A special kinetic mode allows single stripe images to be acquired very fast up to 1000 fps if necessary using full vertical binning.
- Florescence imaging
- TIRF microscopy
- Confocal Microscopy / Cell Screening
- Single molecule imaging
- Cell Motility / living cell recording
- Solar Panel Characterization
- Electron microscopy
- Biochip reader
- Raman Spectroscopy
- Up to 2000: 1 internal gain @ 30fps
- On chip binning allowing enhanced night vision capability
- Centered VGA for fast frame rate
- Frame shift smear suppression
- Line scan operation
- Zoom drivers
T1000 Camera Applications
Confocal Fluorescence ImagingIn a confocal microscope, the detector aperture obstructs the light that is not coming from the focal point. The out-of-focus light is blocked by the pinhole in order to produce crisp image with no haze contribution introduced by the depth of field from the objective. The smaller the pinhole, the sharper the image will be as it will block effectively the fluorescence from the nearest neighbouring planes, but also less light will be caught by the detector. Therefore there is a need for a very sensitive camera to capture the fluorescence arising from the confocal plane. Typical integration time must be kept as short as possible in order to avoid cell damages under extended periods of digital recording. Typically 100ms to 1 second is used per image, depending on sensitivity settings chosen on the camera. Three dimensional re-construction is achieved by acquiring multiple images at different Z positions using a piezo / stepper motor driven z axis on a motorized microscope. Z stacks acquired over time allow to building multidimensional data sets taking into account multiples variables such as wavelengths, x,y,z positions and time. Multiple cameras can be synchronized as one single detector in order to produce parallel acquisition.
TIRFA Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscope uses evanescent waves to selectively illuminate and excite fluorophores in a restricted region of the sample. Evanescent waves are generated only when the incident light is totally reflected. The evanescent electromagnetic field decays exponentially and thus penetrates to a depth of only approximately 100 nm inside the sample. Thus the TIRFM enables a selective visualization of surface regions such as plasma membrane. TIRF can also be used to observe the fluorescence of a single molecule. Large magnification objectives are used routinely: typically 63 up to 100x objectives are combined with x2 projective optics in order to reach less than 100nm resolution. As the volume probed is very small, the amount of fluorescence recorded is small and hence requires very high sensitivity cameras. Exposure times from 10ms to less than 1sec are also necessary in order to record live data from biological samples.
High Thoughput Cell ScreeningGreen Fluorescent Protein (GFP) has many applications as a marker in living cells and has become widely used as a reporter gene in microbial, plant and animal cells. Screening microbial colonies for GFP expression enables various types of assays (e.g. for mutations). Fast automated imaging data collection routines enable discrimination between colonies, based on the level of fluorescence activity and the picking function automatically transfers cells to microplate wells. Measuring fluorescent activity allows quantification of fluorescent tag concentration/expression. Fast acquisition requires a high sensitivity camera to collect images at high speed with as little as 1ms integration time. Gated cameras can be used with pulsed fluorescence sources in order to reduce noise and accurately synchronize the exposure to excitation sequences.
Scanning Electron Microscope EBSD / KOSSEL ImagingEBSD can be used for crystal orientation mapping, defect studies, phase identification, grain boundary, morphology studies, regional heterogeneity investigations, material discrimination, microstrain mapping, and using complimentary techniques, physico-chemical identification. Experimentally EBSD is conducted using a SEM equipped with a backscatter diffraction camera that records faint Kikuchi bands. This corresponds to each of the lattice diffracting planes and can be indexed individually by the Miller indices of the diffracting plane which formed it. The bands formed can also be analysed to show the deformation present within the material: pattern blurring gives an indication of the plastic strain within the crystal and small rotations of the pattern (compared to a perfect crystal at this orientation) indicate elastic strain. Cameras with good sensitivity are required for performing a fast acquisition duty cycle over 100 fps. Reduction in beam current / increased duty cycle can be achieved with optimized camera coupling and scintillator absorption. EBSD cameras can be upgraded to digitize Kossel diffraction patterns that will lead to subsequent structural / strain analysis.
EUV / DUV Lithography, Source, Optics and Resin CharacterizationThe semiconductor industry roadmap uses shorter wavelength light sources to produce smaller feature sizes on processors as well as on memory components. Wavelength ranging from 248 nm to 193 nm are currently used to produce feature sizes < 100 nm. The next generation includes EUV sources which use 13.5 nm for printing feature size as small as 32 nm. A source with very good brightness is needed for maintaining production throughput similar to that of DUV techniques. Therefore, EUV and UXV CCD detectors with good UV sensitivity and good dynamic range are necessary to cope with pulsed sources that are used to characterize resin, prior to mask manufacturing. EUV sources can produce a huge amount of debris, so it important that CCD detectors withstand over-exposures without saturation/bleeding artifacts as well as potential contamination from debris coming from the plasma generation. Large area cameras from 13x13mm up to 24x36mm can be used with a frame rate of up to 5ps at full resolution.
Astronomy/Diffraction-limited CCD ImagingRecent technological changes in CCD cameras permit short exposures to be taken with negligible read out noise, allowing a high speed stream of images to be captured. This can result in thousands of quick exposures being saved for subsequent post-processing. This technique uses a bright star nearby the object to be observed, and calculation of the Strehl number of the reference star in each captured image . A selection algorithm drops images that fall below the minimum and those images that meet the selection criteria are used which may be as little as 1% to 10% of the data stream. These selected images are combined by shifting and co-adding the sequence to produce diffraction limited image of the object being observed. The resultant image has been corrected for the turbulence of the atmosphere. This technique has also been called ” LUCKY IMAGING”. Associated techniques are “speckle interferometry”.
Single Molecule Fluorescence ImagingSingle Molecule emission spectra, lifetime, and intensity deliver specific information about the molecule location. The physical properties of materials such as lateral or rotational diffusion, conformational studies including protein folding can be studied using single molecule fluorescence techniques. Combined with a confocal microscope set up, SMF is capable of mapping both the location and orientation of single molecules, observing orientation and intensity changes over time down to nanometer range. It is important for the detector to record fast sequences at low intensity as the emission from single fluorescent molecules could be weak and changing rapidly over time. Subtle intensity changes are usually recorded over a large background. This translates into good dynamic range requirements for the camera on top of high sensitivity, fast shuttering capability and rapid image transfer to a host PC.
Forensics ImagingUV sensitive CCD detectors are used for recording UV reflectance of untreated fingerprints as well as fingerprints that have only been processed with cyanoacrylate fuming (superglue evaporation). Good sensitivity is often required for detecting faint luminol treated stains. The cameras are used with a narrow band pass filter which will select the UV response only above the visible background. High resolution sensors, typically over 1 megapixel, are required for sampling specific fingerprint details. Image enhancement tools like Fast Fourier Transform and image subtraction that allow you to quickly identify your images. The camera is incorporated into a portable equipment, which includes a UV source, a digital recorder (labtop), a specific high transmission UV lens and a real time UV sensitive camera. Laboratory equipment will use more specific UV optics, mounted onto a microscope for extensive research and comparative analysis.
- 1002 (h) x 1004 (v) CCD array
- Input pixel size : 8 x 8 microns
- 11 mm diagonal
- 15 fps at full resolution @ 17.5 MHz
- 30 fps for 2x2 binning @ 17.5 MHz
- Readout noise : 22-25 electrons @ 17.5 MHz with no EM gain
- 1.5 electron with x 40 absolute EM Gain
- Calibrated EM gain range up to > 2,000 with no ageing effects
- Temperature gain compensation down to < 1% accuracy
- Full well capacity : 40,000 electrons for 1x1 binning
- Dark current : < 0.5 electrons / pixel / second
- Full vertical binning for 1D spectroscopy with 1ms transfer time
- 12-bit digitization
- Camera link / GigE interface
- Synchronisation / control : via TTL pulse or pixel clock